我院2015年病原菌分布情况及耐药性分析
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篇名: 我院2015年病原菌分布情况及耐药性分析
TITLE:
摘要: 目的:为临床合理使用抗菌药物提供依据。方法:采用回顾性分析方法,对我院2015年1-12月病原菌分布、构成及耐药情况进行统计分析。结果:2015年我院检验科微生物室共收到标本9 401份,检出病原菌的标本共1 743份,阳性率为18.54%;共检出病原菌1 591株,主要来源于痰液(59.77%)、尿液(14.77%)和血液标本(8.93%)。共检出革兰氏阳性菌347株(21.81%)、革兰氏阴性菌991株(62.29%)和真菌253株(15.90%);检出量列前4位的分别为大肠埃希菌、肺炎克雷伯菌、铜绿假单胞菌和金黄色葡萄球菌。金黄色葡萄球菌、肺炎链球菌和溶血葡萄球菌对万古霉素、利奈唑胺和夫西地酸钠敏感,耐药率均为0;对红霉素的耐药率均超过65%。金黄色葡萄球菌对青霉素的耐药率超过95%,溶血葡萄球菌对常用抗菌药物的耐药率普遍较高。大肠埃希菌、肺炎克雷伯菌和铜绿假单胞菌对碳青霉烯类药物的耐药率均低于15%,且均对多黏菌素敏感,耐药率为0。大肠埃希菌对喹诺酮类药物的耐药率均超过50%。结论:我院病原菌感染以革兰氏阴性菌为主,整体耐药情况不容乐观。对主要病原菌敏感性较高的药物包括万古霉素、利奈唑胺和碳青霉烯类等。临床应加强对病原菌耐药特征的监测,并根据药敏试验结果合理、规范地选用抗菌药物。
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To provide reference for rational use of antibiotics in the clinic. METHODS: In retrospective study, the distribution, composition and drug resistance of pathogens in our hospital during Jan.-Dec. in 2015 were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: In 2015, a total of  9 401 specimens were collected in microbiology laboratory of our hospital; pathogens were detected in 1 743 specimens with positive rate of 18.54%; 1 591 strains of pathogens were isolated, mainly from sputum (59.77%), urine (14.775) and blood sample (8.93%). Totally 347 strains of Gram-positive bacteria(21.81%), 991 strains of Gram-negative bacteria (62.29%), 253 strains of fungus (15.90%)were detected. Top 4 pathogens in the list of amount were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. S. aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus haemolyticus were sensitive to vancomycin, linezolid and sodium fusidate, with resistance rate of 0; resistance rates of them to erythromycin were more than 65%. The resistance rate of S. aureus to penicillin was more than 95%, and S. haemolyticus showed high resistance rate to common antibiotics. Drug resistances of E. coli, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa to carbapenems were all lower than 15%, and they were sensitive to polymyxin with resistance rate of 0. Resistance rate of E. coli to quinolones was more than 50%. CONCLUSIONS: The main pathogens are Gram-negative bacteria in our hospital, drug resistance of them are not satisfactory. Drugs most sensitive to main pathogens include vancomycin, linezolid, carbapenems, etc. The inspection of pathogen drug resistance characteristics should be strengthened, and antibiotics should be selected rationally and normatively according to the results of drug sensitivity test.
期刊: 2017年第28卷第11期
作者: 刘桢宇,陈春林,徐荣,胡文
AUTHORS: LIU Zhenyu,CHEN Chunlin,XU Rong,HU Wen
关键字: 病原菌;耐药性;临床分布;合理用药
KEYWORDS: Pathogen; Drug resistance; Clinical distribution; Rational durg use
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